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The washtub bass, or gutbucket, is a stringed instrument used in American folk music that uses a metal washtub as a resonator. Although it is possible for a washtub bass to have four or more strings and tuning pegs, traditional washtub basses have a single string whose pitch is adjusted by pushing or pulling on a staff or stick to change the tension.
The washtub bass was used in jug bands that were popular in some African American communities in the early 1900s. In the 1950s, Britishskiffle bands used a variant called a tea chest bass, and during the 1960s, US folk musicians used the washtub bass in jug band-influenced music.
Variations on the basic design are found around the world, particularly in the choice of resonator. As a result, there are many different names for the instrument including the 'gas-tank bass', 'barrel bass', 'box bass' (Trinidad), 'bush bass' (Australia), 'babatoni' (South Africa), 'tanbou marengwen' (Haiti) 'tingotalango' (Cuba), 'tulòn' (Italy), 'laundrophone' and others.
The hallmarks of the traditional design are simplicity, very low cost and do it yourself construction, leading to its historical association with lower economic classes. These factors also make it quite common for modern-day builders to promote modifications to the basic design, such as adding a finger board, pedal, electronic pickup, drumhead, or making the staff immovable.
Ethnomusicologists trace the origins of the instrument to the 'ground bow' or 'ground harp' – a version that uses a piece of bark or an animal skin stretched over a pit as a resonator. The ang-bindi made by the Baka people of the Congo is but one example of this instrument found among tribal societies in Africa and Southeast Asia, and it lends its name to the generic term inbindi for all related instruments. Evolution of design, including the use of more portable resonators, has led to many variations, such as the dan bau (Vietnam) and gopichand (India), and more recently, the 'electric one-string', which amplifies the sound using a pickup.
The washtub bass is sometimes used in a jug band, often accompanied by a washboard as a percussion instrument. Jug bands, first known as 'spasm bands', were popular especially among African-Americans around 1900 in New Orleans and reached a height of popularity between 1925 and 1935 in Memphis and Louisville.
At about the same time, European-Americans of Appalachia were using the instrument in 'old-timey' folk music. A musical style known as 'gut-bucket blues' came out of the jug band scene, and was cited by Sam Phillips of Sun Records as the type of music he was seeking when he first recorded Elvis Presley.
According to Willie 'The Lion' Smith's autobiography, the term 'gutbucket' comes from 'Negro families' who all owned their own pail, or bucket, and would get it filled with the makings for chitterlings. The term 'gutbucket' came from playing a lowdown style of music.
In English skiffle bands, Australian and New Zealandbush bands and South Africankwela bands, the same sort of bass has a tea chest as a resonator. The Quarrymen, John Lennon and Paul McCartney's band before the Beatles, featured a tea-chest bass, as did many young bands around 1956.
A folk music revival in the U.S. in the early 1960s re-ignited interest in the washtub bass and jug band music. Bands included Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions, which later became The Grateful Dead, and the Jim Kweskin Jug Band, which featured Fritz Richmond on bass.
Tea chest bass
A tea chest bass is a variation of the washtub bass that uses a tea chest as the resonator for an upright stringed bass. The instrument is made from a pole, traditionally a broomstick, placed into or alongside the chest. One or more strings are stretched along the pole and plucked.
In Europe, particularly Britain and Germany, the instrument is associated with skiffle bands. In Australia it was traditionally used to provide deep sounds for 'bush bands', though most such groups today use electric bass or double bass. It was commonly called a 'bush bass'.
Other variations on the basic design are found around the world, particularly in the choice of resonator, for example:
- 'gas-tank bass'
- 'barrel bass'
- 'box bass' (Trinidad)
- 'bush bass' (Australia)
- 'babatoni' (South Africa)
- 'dumdum' (Zimbabwe)
- 'dan bau' (Vietnam)
- 'sanduku' (Zanzibar)
- 'tanbou marengwen, in English, mosquito drum' (Haiti)
- 'tingotalango' (Cuba)
- 'tulòn' (Italy)
- Will Shade vocalist and multi-instrumentalist member of the Memphis Jug Band who recorded from the 1920s until his death in 1966.
- Kansas Joe McCoy, washtub bass player and multi-instrumentalist, recorded with Arthur Crudup in 1941.
- Fritz Richmond (1939–2005) has performed on numerous recordings from America and Japan. One of his washtub basses is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution.
- Donald Kachamba and Moya Aliya, one-string box players with the influential Malawi group Kachamba Brothers Band. Can be heard on 'Donald Kachamba's Kwela Band', and 'Malawi / Concert Kwela'.
- Brian Ritchie, of the band The Violent Femmes, plays a 'tubless electric washtub bass'.
- Les Claypool, of Primus, often plays a variation called a whamola.
- Bill Smith, Len Garry,Ivan Vaughan, and Nigel Walley, tea-chest bass players of The Quarrymen.
- John Sanford, a.k.a. Redd Foxx, got his start in show business as washtub bass player for the 'Bon Bons'. In the Sanford and Son episode 'Sanford and Gong' aired December 17, 1976, Sanford and Don 'Bubba' Bexley audition for The Gong Show with Bubba on washtub bass.
- Bob Weir and Mike Garbett played washtub bass on the eponymous album Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions - a forerunner band to the Grateful Dead.
- Stu Cook, the bassist of Creedence Clearwater Revival, played washtub bass on the track 'Poorboy Shuffle' from the album Willy and the Poor Boys. He faked playing the instrument to a recording of 'Down on the Corner' on the ABC-TV variety show Music Scene, December 1, 1969.
- Lionel Kilberg (1930–2008), promoter and player of the 'Brownie Bass' with 'The Shanty Boys' during the folk music revival of the 1950s and 1960s in New York, and producer/lyricist/player of the 1973 album We Walked by the Water featuring Kate Wolf.
- That 1 Guy plays a variation of the washtub bass called the 'Magic Pipe' and a few other self-built instruments.
- ^Smith, Willie the Lion (1964). Music on My Mind: The Memoirs of an American Pianist, Foreword by Duke Ellington. New York City: Doubleday & Company Inc. p. 11.
- ^'Fritz Richmond, 66, a Master of the Jug and Washtub Bass, Is Dead', AP/New York Times, November 24, 2005
- ^No label, recorded live in Austria at Jazz-Pub Wiesen and at Montage-Recording, August 1978
- ^Le Chant Du Monde – LDX 274 972, France, 1994
- ^Bass Player Magazine, May 2006
- ^'Before they were Beatles, they were Quarrymen', Gillian G. Gaar, Goldmine Magazine, November 28, 2012
- ^'Lonnie Donegan and the Birth of British Rock and Roll', Patrick Humphries, Biteback Publishing, 2012
- ^Byarlay, Ryan (10 May 2009). 'Redd Foxx (1922-1991)'. Blackpast.org. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
- ^Ed Ward. '40th anniversary re-issue liner notes. Willy and the Poor Boys'(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 2012-03-14. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
- ^'Neil Diamond, Mama Cass Elliot, Creedence Clearwater Revival, Sergio Mendes & Brasil '66, Smokey Robinson & The Miracles'. IMDb.com. 1 December 1969. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
- ^Shoostryng Records, re-issued 1995 by Gadfly Records as Breezes
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Washtub basses.|
Like father, like son: The Academy Award winner, 46, and his son, 5, both rode the surf on body boards during the summer weekday excursion The Dark Knight star shares Joseph as well as 15-year-old daughter Emmeline with stunt performer Sibi Blažić, 50. The pair have been married since the year 2000. Bale, who won an Oscar for Best Supporting Actor for his work in David O. Russell's 2010 film The Fighter, is prepping for a role in a new film from that director. Lovely family: The Dark Knight star shares Joseph as well as 15-year-old daughter Emmeline with stunt performer Sibi Blažić; seen here in 2018 That movie, to costar Margot Robbie and Michael B. Jordan, is yet to be titled, and the plot has been kept under wraps. Christian is also poised to join the Marvel Cinematic Universe in Thor: Love And Thunder, the fourth movie in the Thor saga. He is rumored to be portraying the villain in the upcoming installment, pitted against Natalie Portman's iteration of the Norse god-inspired superhero.
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Under proposals drawn up by the Rail Delivery Group (RDG) industry body, fuel duty would be increased for the first time in a decade and taxes added to the purchase of jet fuel – leading to higher air fares for holidaymakers. But motoring groups and airline bosses reacted with fury last night, pointing out that British motorists and air passengers are among the most taxed in the world. The AA said drivers are already fleeced on fuel duty, road tax and resident parking permits while being 'hunted at every turn for parking, bus lane and other fines'. Under proposals drawn up by the Rail Delivery Group (RDG) industry body, fuel duty would be increased for the first time in a decade and taxes added to the purchase of jet fuel And the Airlines UK trade body warned higher fares would penalise isolated communities which rely on regional airports because of poor rail links. They urged train companies to instead focus on ending rip-off rail fares. The average cost of a rail season ticket passed £3, 000 for the first time last year and analysis has shown that travelling by train can be up to 13 times more expensive than driving.